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What are Social Stories?

Social stories have emerged as a valuable tool to support children with navigating their world and social situations. Developed by Carol Gray in the early 1990s, social stories are narrative interventions designed to promote understanding and enhance social learning by providing children with a structured and easy to understand story about the situation or event. They were first designed to support autistic children. Here, we will explore the concept of social stories, how to use them effectively, their benefits, and the essential components that make up a well-crafted social story.

What Are Social Stories

A social story is a written or visual tool that uses simple language and images to describe a specific social situation, event, or interaction. The goal is to help children understand what is happening, what is expected of them, and how they could respond. Social stories aim to provide clarity, reduce anxiety, and promote independence by presenting information in a structured, accessible and relatable manner.

social stories

Creating and Using Social Stories

  • Identify the Target Situation: Start by identifying the specific social situation or event you want to address. This could be anything from sharing toys with peers to a birthday party to handling frustration during a challenging task.

  • Observe and Gather Information: Carefully observe the child to gather information about their reactions and challenges related to the target situation. It's essential to understand their perspective and what might be causing distress or confusion.

  • Write or Create the Social Story: Begin crafting the social story, keeping in mind the child's unique needs and characteristics. Social stories typically follow a specific structure, which we will discuss in detail later. Ensure that the language used is simple, clear, and age-appropriate.

  • Share the Social Story: Introduce the social story to the child in a calm and supportive environment. Read or present it together, allowing them to ask questions or seek clarification if needed.

  • Reinforce and Practice: Revisit the social story regularly to reinforce understanding and ensure consistency.

Why Are Social Stories Helpful?

boy reading social story

Social stories offer a range of benefits:

Enhanced Understanding: Social stories break down complex social situations into manageable, step-by-step explanations, making it easier for children to understand what is happening.

Predictability: They provide a predictable framework that can reduce anxiety by helping children to anticipate what will occur in specific situations.

Social learning: By promoting understanding and offering guidance on appropriate responses, social stories can lead to improved responses and social interactions.

Increased Independence: Social stories empower children to navigate social situations more independently.

Personalization: Each social story can be tailored to the individual's unique needs and preferences, making them highly adaptable and effective.

Visual Support: For children who benefit from visual aids, social stories provide a visual representation of the situation, making it easier to process and remember.

Generalization: Over time, children may generalize the skills learned from social stories to new, similar situations, promoting greater overall social competence.

Social stories have proven to be an invaluable tool for autistic children. By breaking down complex social situations, providing clear guidance, and addressing emotional aspects, social stories empower children to navigate the social world with greater understanding and confidence. When constructed with the essential components in mind, social stories can become highly personalized and effective tools for fostering independence, lowering anxiety and enhancing social learning. The flexibility and adaptability of social stories make them suitable for a wide range of situations and individuals. As a result, they have become a cornerstone of many special education and therapeutic interventions.


  1. Gray, C. (2015). "The New Social Story Book, Revised and Expanded 15th Anniversary Edition: Over 150 Social Stories that Teach Everyday Social Skills to Children and Adults with Autism and their Peers." Future Horizons.

  2. National Autistic Society. (n.d.). "Social Stories." Retrieved from

  3. Center for Autism and Related Disorders. (n.d.). "Social Stories." Retrieved from

  4. Carol Gray's Social Stories. (n.d.). Official website. Retrieved from

  5. Attwood, T. (2010). "The Complete Guide to Asperger's Syndrome." Jessica Kingsley Publishers.


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